8 years) was indeed randomized so you can every day calcium supplementation (step 1,2 hundred milligrams) for four years. If you are zero rise in the danger to own prostate cancers might have been stated through the an effective 10.step three-12 months go after-upwards, calcium supplements lead to a serious chance reduction in the period spanning away from two years just after medication arrived at couple of years immediately after treatment ended (150). For the a peek at this new literary works penned last year, the us Agencies to have Health care Look and Top quality showed that maybe not the epidemiological education located an association anywhere between calcium supplements consumption and you can prostate cancer (151). The fresh new feedback reported that 6 out-of eleven observational studies unsuccessful to acquire statistically high positive connections between prostate malignant tumors and you can calcium intake. But really, into the four knowledge, every single day consumption off choses Ã savoir quand on sort avec un Ã©changiste 921 so you can dos,000 milligrams regarding calcium was basically discovered to be associated with an enthusiastic enhanced danger of development prostate cancer tumors when comparing to intakes ranging from 455 to one,one hundred thousand mg/day (151). Inconsistencies among training recommend cutting-edge interactions amongst the chance products getting prostate cancers, along with echo the difficulties regarding evaluating the effect out-of calcium intake when you look at the totally free-life style some one. Eg, the truth that those with higher whole milk and you will/or calcium consumption have been seen to be expected to end up being engaged in compliment life-style or higher attending find medical assistance can also be mitigate new analytical requirement for a link with prostate cancers exposure (152).
Carry out calcium boost the chance to own cardiovascular disease?
Several observational education and you will randomized managed samples have raised inquiries off the possibility negative effects out-of calcium to your cardiovascular chance. The research of information regarding Kuopio Weakening of bones Chance Factor and you may Reduction (OSTPRE) potential studies unearthed that pages of calcium supplements between 10,555 Finnish girls (ages 52-62 age) had good fourteen% greater risk of developing coronary artery problem versus non-supplement pages throughout the a suggest follow-up away from 6.75 ages (153). The prospective study of 23,980 professionals (35-64 yrs old) of your Heidelberg cohort of your own Western european Prospective Study on Cancers and you may Nourishment cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) noticed one to supplemental calcium consumption was seriously of the exposure out of myocardial infarction (coronary attack) yet not toward chance of coronary arrest or cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated mortality once a suggest go after-right up of eleven years (154). Yet ,, the application of calcium supplements (?eight hundred milligrams/day vs. 0 mg/day) try with the a heightened likelihood of CVD-associated mortality inside 219,059 guys, yet not in 169,170 girls, as part of the Federal Institute out of Wellness (NIH)-AARP Dieting and Fitness investigation and you can adopted to have a suggest period out-of several ages. CVD mortality in males has also been found to be rather highest with total (dietary and additionally extra) calcium consumption of 1,five hundred mg/date and over (155).
Till the matchmaking ranging from calcium supplements and you will prostate malignant tumors is explained, it’s sensible for men to eat all in all, 1,100 to a single,two hundred milligrams/day of calcium (diet and drugs mutual), that is recommended from the Food and Nourishment Panel of your Institute of Drug (select RDA) (9)
In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women's Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study - in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).